Anthropogenic Biomes

Note: the current anthromes version is here: <Anthromes 12K DGG (v1)>.

Anthromes version 1 introduced the Anthromes concept as part of the first global classification of the ecological patterns created by humans.

The biosphere has long been described using global ecosystem units called biomes, which are vegetation types like tropical rainforests and grasslands that are identified in relation to global patterns of climate.  Now that humans have fundamentally altered global patterns of ecosystem form, process, and biodiversity, it is time to remap the terrestrial biosphere to include ecological patterns produced by humans.

Anthropogenic biomes, also known as anthromes“or “human biomes“, describe the terrestrial biosphere in its contemporary, human-altered form using global ecosystem units defined by global patterns of sustained direct human interaction with ecosystems, offering a new way forward for ecological research and education. Anthromes 1 was widely covered by the media (archive of media links here) and is now part of textbooks in ecology, biology and geography.


Ellis, E. C. and N. Ramankutty. 2008. Putting people in the map: anthropogenic biomes of the world. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 6(8):439-447. [download]

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