Anthromes 2

Anthromes 2 builds on the anthromes concept introduced in Anthromes 1 to investigate long-term anthropogenic changes in the the terrestrial biosphere.

Anthromes 2 was the first historical analysis of global changes in anthromes and biomes before and during the Industrial Revolution, from 1700 to 2000.

Input data

Input Data for Anthromes v2.0
(data for 1700, 1800, 1900 and 2000)

Major Results

  • Biosphere less than half Wild in 1700, but only 5% Used.
  • Transition to mostly anthropogenic between 1900 & 2000.
  • Biosphere in 2000: 40% Used, 37% Novel, 23% Wild.
    • Novel ecosystems embedded within used lands now almost twice as common as wildlands.
    • Wildlands remain primarily in Earth’s coldest and driest regions.


Ellis, E. C., K. Klein Goldewijk, S. Siebert, D. Lightman, and N. Ramankutty. 2010. Anthropogenic transformation of the biomes, 1700 to 2000. Global Ecology and Biogeography 19(5):589-606. [download] [blog post: The Biosphere we created: 1700 to 2000]

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